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Major Milestones in Biotechnology Over the Years

1977: The Age of biotechnology arrives with 'somatostatin' - a human growth hormone-releasing inhibitory factor, the first human protein manufactured in bacteria by Genentech, Inc. A synthetic, recombinant gene was used to clone a protein for the first time. 1978: Genentech, Inc. and The City of Hope National Medical Center announce the successful laboratory production of human insulin using recombinant DNA technology. Hutchinson and Edgell show it is possible to introduce specific mutations at specific sites in a DNA molecule. 1979: Sir Walter Bodmer suggests a way of using DNA technology to find gene markers to show specific genetic diseases and their carriers. John Baxter reports cloning the gene for human growth hormone. 1980: The prokaryote model, E. coli, is used to produce insulin and other medicine, in human form. Researchers successfully introduce a human gene - one that codes for the protein interferon- into a bacterium. The U.S. patent for gene cloning is awarded to Cohen and Boyer. 1981: Scien...

 


An Overview of the Characteristics of Silver

Silver, a chemical element, exists in the periodic table with the symbol "Ag" and atomic number 47. Silver is a soft white lustrous transition metal. Due to the fact that it has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity of any metal, silver is widely used throughout the world. It’s used in coins, jewelry, tableware, and photography, to name just a few examples. Silver occurs in minerals and in free form. If you look around your household you can find several objects that are made of polished silver. For example: silver dollars, silver cutlery, or photography equipment. Being just a bit harder than gold, silver is very ductile and malleable. Because of silver's physical properties as a brilliant white metallic luster it can take a high degree of polish. Copper has replaced silver in several instances due to it's lower cost, this is especially true for electrical purposes. Silver has a number of other notable characteristics: - Silver has the whitest color of any metal - Silver has the highest ...

 


Properties of Sound

Sound in brief but remarkable terms is a vibration, that our ears perceive by the sense of hearing. Most commonly vibrations travel to our ears via the air. The ear then converts these sound waves into nerve impulses that are sent to our brains, where the impulses become sound. To say all that in a more technical language: Sound "is an alternation in pressure, particle displacement, or particle velocity propagated in an elastic material" (Olson 1957). Sound is also a series of mechanical compressions and rarefactions or longitudinal waves that successively propagate through media that are at least a little compressible. What causes sound waves is known as "the source of waves". Examples of sounds sources is: A violin string that vibrates upon being bowed or plucked. The four characteristics of sound are frequency, wavelength, amplitude and velocity. The frequency of sound is the number of air pressure oscillations per second at a fixed point occupied by a sound wave. The amplitude is the magnitude of so...

 




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